The One Hundred and Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was organized at Anna, Illinois by Colonel Thomas R. Casey in September, A.D. 1862 and was mustered into the United States service September 11, 1862 by Captain Washington, of the Sixteenth Regular Infantry.
The Regiment was recruited from the counties of Jefferson, Washington, Wayne, Hamilton, Saline, Franklin, Perry and Williamson.
On the 23rd day of September, A.D. 1862, the Regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., and there was assigned to the Ninteenth Brigade, compromised of the Forty-first Ohio, Ninth Indiana, Sixth and Twenty-seventh Kentucky regiments, and commanded by Col. W.B. Hazen. The Brigade formed a part of the Fourth Division, general William Sooy Smith commanding, Army of Ohio.
September 27th, 1862, left Louisville in pursuit of the Rebel General Bragg, who had followed General Buell from Nashville Tenn., to Salt River, about forty miles from Louisville, The march was by the way of Bardstown to Perryville, when the Regiment with the Brigade was in line of battle by noon the on the 8th of October, 1862, and not more than two miles distant from where the battle of Perryville was being fought. An advance was not ordered. The regiment lay in line of battle the night and advanced in that order in the morning only to find that during the night Bragg had retreated and escaped.
On the 11th day of October the Brigade encountered the enemy a mile in front of Danville. A line of battle was formed and the rebels were driven thriugh and beyond the town of Danville. This was the first skirmish that the Regiment was engaged in. The Regiment remained near Danville until the 11th of October, and on that day moved toward Crab Orchard in pursuit of the enemy.
On the 16th of October, not far from Mt. Vernon, Ky., the rear of the enemy was encountered drawn up in line of battle. The Ninteeth brigade advanced in line of battle, and after sharp skirmishing the rebels were driven from their position and retreated.
On the 15th and 16th of October the Regiment was constantly skirmishing. On the night of the 16th the camp was at Big Rock Castle Creek. On the 17th moved to Wild Cat. On the 18th and 19th encamped at Petman's Cross roads, within forty-five miles of Cumberland Gap. From there the Regiment moved by the way of Somerset, Columbia, Glasgow and Gallatin to Nashville Tenn., where it encamped on the 7th day of November, 1862.
Of the campaign in southeastern Kentucky, the Brigade Comander, Colonel, (now Brigade General) hazen, in his report said: " It is proper to remark that during the entire campaign, although we were destitute of many of the comforts usual in campaigns, without tents, often without sufficient food, through the most inclement weather, marches of almost unprcedented length, I have never heard a murmur, and now have to report a condition of health better than ever before know in the Brigade, and a state of thorough discipline in the highest degree satisfactory."
On the 26th of December, the Regiment marched toward Murfreesboro. At Lavergne, the Regiment came up with the rebels, and a considerable skirmish ensued. The Twenty-seventh marched on the Jefferson pike and crossed Stewart Creek.
On the 29th of December the Regiment was within three miles of Murfreesboro, and on the 30th in line of battle.
On the 31st engaged in the battle of Stone River. In that battle the Regiment lost in killed and wounded very heavily, Lieutenant Jesse G. Payne, of Company D, a valiant and brave officer, being among the killed.
The battle ground of the Regiment was exactly where the monument to " Hazen's Brigade" now stands. On the night of the 31st the Regiment slept where they had fought during the day in the extreme advance until the early dawn of the first day of January, when it took a position on the bank of the Stone River.
Of the conduct of the Regiment in the battle of Stone River the Brigade Commander said: "It displayed that fearless courage one admires in vetrans." of this brigade he said: "Such heroic service rendered their country this day, such heroic and daring valor justly entitles these men to the profound respect of the people and the country."
After the battle of Stone River the Regiment, with the the remainder of the Brigade, was posted at Readyville, ten miles from Murfreesboro, on the exterme left of the army.
On the 2nd day of April, breaking camp at 11 p.m., the Regiment participated in the attack on the rebels at Woodbury, and in this expedition at daylight on the 3rd of April, captured one picket post consisting of thirty mounted rebels with their horses. One of the rebels captured was a brother of one of the assistant surgeons of the Regiment. He was a mere boy, 17 years old, who after being properly advised was sent back back to his aged mother, who lived in the immediate neighborhood.
In May, 1863, the Regiment being much reduced because of losses in battles, sickness and discharges, was consolidated. After that the Regiment was engaged in the battles of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, the battles around Atlanta and in the "March to the Sea," then in the march north through the Carolina's and was at the surrender of General Johnston's Army. Marched from there to Washington City, participated in the Grand Review of General Sherman's Army, and was there on the the 5th day of June, 1865 mustered out of the service. From there the Regiment was moved by rail to Chicago, Ill., where on the 15th day of June it received final payment and discharge.
The consolidation of this Regiment was ordered by Paragraph 6, Special Field Orders 123, Headquarters, Department of the Cumberland, May 7, 1863, and approved by Major General John M. Palmer, which order is as follows:
"Major General Palmer, commanding Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps, will cause the consolidation of the One Hundred and Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, under the instructions contained in General Orders No. 86, War Department, current series. The officers to be retained in service will be selected by him. The Assistant Commissary of Musters, Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps, will muster out of service all officers rendered supernumerary by the consolidation.
A report of the battalion as re-organized will be made to these Headquarters.
By command of Major General ROSECRANS.
Captain and A.A.G.
May 8, 1863 - Consolidations made, by reducing the Regiment to four (4) Companies.
HEADQUARTERS FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, ARMY OF GEORGIA
XVII. In accordance with telegram orders from War Department, dated May 18, 1865, the men belonging to the One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, whose terms of service do not expire prior to October 1, 1865, are hereby transferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veterans Volunteer Infantry.
By command of Brevet Major General J.C. DAVIS
A.A.G. and Chief of Staff