The Eighty-fourth Infantry was organized at Quincy in August, 1862, by Colonel L. H. Waters, of Macomb, Ill., and was mustered into the service of the United States September 1, 1862, with 939 men and officers.
The Regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., September 23, and was assigned to the Tenth Brigade of the Fourth Division, which had formerly been commanded by General Nelson.
On the organization of the Army of the Cumberland the Regiment was one of five composing the Third Brigade of the First Division of the Twenty-first Army Corps. General John M. Palmer commanded the Division, and General Thomas L. Crittenden, of Kentucky, the Corps.
After the battle of Chickamauga the Army was reorganized, and the Fourth and Fourteenth Corps were formed of the old Army of the Cumberland, while the Tenth and Twelfth Corps were combined and formed the Twentieth. The Eighty-fourth was one of nine regiments composing the Third Brigade of the First Division of the Fourth Corps. The Division was commanded by the gallant Major General Stanley, who was soon after assigned to the command of the Corps. The Regiment shared the fortunes of the Army of the Cumberland and was with it in every march and in every battle until the close of the war.
It was at the battle of Perryville and on the march with Buel through Kentucky in the pursuit of the Confederate army under Bragg.
When the famous "Kentucky Campaign" closed the Regiment went to Nashville, Tenn., via Mt. Vernon, Somerset, Columbia, Glasgow and Gallatin.
In the march from Buch Creek to Somerset, a distance of 12 miles, some 90 of the men were compelled to wade through snow, slush and mud the entire distance without shoes.
The Regiment participated in the battle of Stone River, where it lost 228 men and officers killed and wounded out of a total of 350 engaged.
It was in the Tullahoma Campaign and at the battle of Chickamauga. In Chattanooga during what was called the "Siege" and with Hooker at Lookout Mountain in "the fight above the clouds." It participated in the "Atlanta Campaign" and the battle of Franklin and Nashville under Thomas.
The Regiment was entitled to inscribe upon its battle flag the names of Perryville, Stone River, Woodbury, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Dalton, Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Franklin and Nashville.
The total casualties in battle were....558
Killed by accident.............................7
Died of disease..............................124
But three of the Regiment were taken prisoners, namely Lieutenant Colonel Morton, Corporal Chowning and Private Herbert of Company C. Colonel Morton was exchanged after having been nine months in Libby; Corporal Chowning escaped from Andersonville after having been a prisoner for more than one year, and rejoined his command during the Atlanta Campaign. Private Herbert, who had lost a leg at Chickamauga, was shot by a sentinel at Andersonville for having crossed the "Dead Line." His grave is numbered 1136.