The Twenty-second Infantry Illinois Volunteers was organized at Belleville, Illinois, May 11, 1861, and was mustered into the United States service for three years, at Caseyville, Illinois, June 25, 1861, by Captain T.G. Pitcher, U.S.A.
On July 11, the Regiment moved to Bird's Point, Mo.
November 7, seven companies engaged in the battle of Belmont-- three being left to guard transports. Loss, 144, killed, wounded and missing.
January 12, 1862, made a reconnoisance, under General Grant, into Kentucky in the rear of Columbus.
The Twenty-second was on detached duty a great deal of the time, and not infrequently had single-handed engagements with the enemy.
On August 19, Colonel Dougherty, with Companies A, B, C, D and E, attacked Colonel Hunter at Charleston, MO., in the night, and drove him from his camp to the town in a hand-to-hand fight, capturing many prisoners and horses. In this engagement the Twenty-second lost 1 killed and 11 wounded, including Colonel Dougherty, whose shoulder was broken with the butt of a gun, and Captain Johnson, who received a gunshot through the right leg.
After this engagement, the Regiment returned to Bird's Point.
Early in the spring of 1862, the Regiment left camp, with one day's cooked rations, to engage General Jeff. Thompson, who was known to be in the neighborhood in force. Coming up with him at Sikestown, a running fight ensued, when he was driven to his fortifications at New Madrid. In this engagement, the Twenty-second captured two guns and a few prisoners, and returned to camp the third day without the loss of a man.
April 8, 1862, expeditions to Tiptonville, under General Paine, to intercept retreating enemy from Island No. 10. Captured 4,000 prisoners, 2 Generals, and a large quantity of stores, ammunition, arms and guns.
May, 3, 5 and 9, 1862, skirmishes before Farmington, and battle of Farmington.
The Regiment was engaged in the siege of Corinth, and in pursuit of the enemy two weeks, in June. The last day of the siege Captain Johnson was again wounded, receiving a gunshot through the head.
The Twenty-second was engaged guarding Memphis & Charleston Railroad until August 26, 1862, when it fell back to Nashville by forced marches, arriving September 11, where it remained the balance of the year.
December 31, 1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863, the Regiment was engaged in the battle of Stone river, where it lost 199 out of 342 men going into action. Lieutenant Colonel Swanwick was wounded and taken prisoner, and remained at Atlanta and Richmond (Libby) until May, 1863. It is a singular fact, that at the battle of Stone River, every horse belonging to the Regiment, including the Battery, was killed.
After the Occupation of Murfreesboro, the Regiment was in camp at different points around that place foraging and skirmishing through the winter and spring.
Marched with the Army of the Cumberland, early in June, southward.
Crossed the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Alabama, about September 1.
The Regiment was engaged in the battle of Chikamauga, September 19, and 20, on the extreme right of the Army under General Sheridan, losing 135 officers and men, out of an aggregate of less than 300. In proof of the severity of the action on the 19th, the Regiment lost 96 men in less than ten minutes, most of whom were down. Among others, the brave Major Johnson was very severely wounded, and Captain French mortally.
The Regiment remained in and around Chattanooga, suffering, in common with the rest of the army, from exposure and want of provisions, being frequently on less than half rations, and almost destitute of blankets, clothing, tents, etc., until the 26th of November, when, with the remainder of General Sheridan's Division, it was engaged in storming the heights of Mission Ridge, losing again between 30 and 40 out of the mere skeleton to which it had previously been reduced.
The few men remaining fit for duty marched, about the last of the month, to the relief of Knoxville.
Passed the greater part of that severe winter (1863-4) in the mountains of East Tennessee.
Marching, in the month of January, 1864, to Dandridge, in pursuit of the Rebel Army under General Longstreet--retreating at night, over awful roads, to Strawberry Plains, and thence marched through Knoxville to Loudon, Tennessee, where it remained long enough to build log huts and occupy them some weeks; and here, March 6, 1864, received the first full ration since leaving Bridgeport, being fully six months.
Leaving Louden, the Regiment marched to Cleveland, Tennessee, and there remained until the scanty remnant joined the grand Army of General Sherman, on the Atlanta campaign.
The Regiment was engaged two days at Resaca, having about 20 men killed and wounded, and in all the other battles and skirmishes, with the exception of Rocky Face (was eleven days and nights under fire at New Hope Church), until the morning of the 10th of June, when all but the recruits and veterans were ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for muster out.
The regiment was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, July 7, 1864. The veterans and recruits whose term of service had not expired, were consolidated with the Forty-second Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers.
It is worth mentioning here that Colonel Dougherty, having lost a leg at the battle of Belmont, never commanded the Regiment again after that engagement.
----------------------------- ORDER OF CONSOLIDATIONHEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND,CHATTANOOGA, TENN., November 22, 1864
Special Field Orders, No. 320}
Extract XII. The detachment Twenty-second Illinois Infantry, temporarily attached to Forty-second Illinois Infantry, and the detachment Twenty-seventh Illinois Infantry temporarily attached to Seventy-ninth Illinois Infantry, are, subject to the approval of the Secretary of War, hereby transferred to those commands, respectively.
By command of Major General Thomas,
WILLIAM McMICHAEL,Major and Ass't Adjutant GeneralOfficial.
(Signed)GEORGE W. HOWARDA.A.G.
------------------------------WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,WASHINGTON, January 7, 1865.
Special Orders, No 10 }
XV. So much of Special Field Orders No. 320, Par. 12, November 22, 1864 from Headquarters Department of the Cumberland, as relates to the Forty-second Illinois Volunteer, and the detachment of the Twenty-second Illinois Volunteers now temporarily attached to the former organization, is hereby confirmed.
By order of the Secretary of War, (Signed)W.A. NICHOLS,A.A.G.